Articles | Volume 4, issue 1
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Calcite U–Pb dating of altered ancient oceanic crust in the North Pamir, Central Asia
Edward R. Sobel
Institute of Geosciences, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
Department of Structural Geology and Geodynamics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
State Key Lab. of Earthquake Dynamics, Xinjiang Pamir Intracontinental Subduction National Field Observation and Research Station, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, X9GJ+RV Chaoyang, Beijing, China
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Daryl L. Howard
The Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
No articles found.
David Hindle and Jonas Kley
Solid Earth, 12, 2425–2438,Short summary
Central western Europe underwent a strange episode of lithospheric deformation, resulting in a chain of small mountains that run almost west–east across the continent and that formed in the middle of a tectonic plate, not at its edges as is usually expected. Associated with these mountains, in particular the Harz in central Germany, are marine basins contemporaneous with the mountain growth. We explain how those basins came to be as a result of the mountains bending the adjacent plate.
Thomas Voigt, Jonas Kley, and Silke Voigt
Solid Earth, 12, 1443–1471,Short summary
Basin inversion in central Europe is believed to have started during Late Cretaceous (middle Turonian) and probably proceeded until the Paleogene. Data from different marginal troughs in central Europe point to an earlier start of basin inversion (in the Cenomanian). The end of inversion is overprinted by general uplift but had probably already occurred in the late Campanian to Maastrichtian. Both the start and end of inversion occurred with low rates of uplift and subsidence.
Jakob Bolz and Jonas Kley
Solid Earth, 12, 1005–1024,Short summary
To assess the role smaller graben structures near the southern edge of the Central European Basin System play in the basin’s overall deformational history, we take advantage of a feature found on some of these structures, where slivers from older rock units appear along the graben's main fault, surrounded on both sides by younger strata. The implications for the geometry of the fault provide a substantially improved estimate for the magnitude of normal and thrust motion along the fault system.
Hilmar von Eynatten, Jonas Kley, István Dunkl, Veit-Enno Hoffmann, and Annemarie Simon
Solid Earth, 12, 935–958,
Elco Luijendijk, Leo Benard, Sarah Louis, Christoph von Hagke, and Jonas Kley
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our knowledge of the geological history of mountain belts relies strongly on thermochronometers, methods that reconstruct the temperature history of rocks found in mountain belts. Here we provide a new equation that describes the motion of rocks in a simplified, wedge-shaped representation of a mountain belt. The equation can be used to interpret thermochronometers and can help quantify the deformation, uplift and erosion history of mountain belts.
Matej Lipar, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Jure Tičar, Miha Pavšek, Matej Gabrovec, Mauro Hrvatin, Blaž Komac, Matija Zorn, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Jian-Xin Zhao, Russell N. Drysdale, and Mateja Ferk
The Cryosphere, 15, 17–30,Short summary
The U–Th ages of subglacial carbonate deposits from a recently exposed surface previously occupied by the disappearing glacier in the SE European Alps suggest the glacier’s presence throughout the entire Holocene. These thin deposits, formed by regelation, would have been easily eroded if exposed during previous Holocene climatic optima. The age data indicate the glacier’s present unprecedented level of retreat and the potential of subglacial carbonates to act as palaeoclimate proxies.
M. Warsitzka, J. Kley, and N. Kukowski
Solid Earth, 6, 9–31,Short summary
This paper summarizes the results of scaled analogue experiments examining the kinematics of salt flow and the formation of salt pillows due to basement faulting and subsequent sedimentation. Our experimental results reveal that salt above a basement normal fault can flow downward or upward depending on the direction of the pressure gradient within the salt layer. Due to upward flow driven by differential loading, salt pillows can form above the higher basement block.
Related subject area
SIMS, LA-ICP-MSExamination of the accuracy of SHRIMP U–Pb geochronology based on samples dated by both SHRIMP and CA-TIMSIn situ U–Pb dating of 4 billion-year-old carbonates in the martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001Constraining the geothermal parameters of in situ Rb–Sr dating on Proterozoic shales and their subsequent applicationsShort communication: On the potential use of materials with heterogeneously distributed parent and daughter isotopes as primary standards for non-U–Pb geochronological applications of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)In situ Lu–Hf geochronology of calciteTowards in situ U–Pb dating of dolomiteUranium incorporation in fluorite and exploration of U–Pb datingU − Pb geochronology of epidote by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) as a tool for dating hydrothermal-vein formationTools for uranium characterization in carbonate samples: case studies of natural U–Pb geochronology reference materialsDirect U–Pb dating of carbonates from micron-scale femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry images using robust regressionTechnical note: LA–ICP-MS U–Pb dating of unetched and etched apatitesThe use of ASH-15 flowstone as a matrix-matched reference material for laser-ablation U − Pb geochronology of calciteExpanding the limits of laser-ablation U–Pb calcite geochronologyResolving multiple geological events using in situ Rb–Sr geochronology: implications for metallogenesis at Tropicana, Western AustraliaLA-ICPMS U–Pb geochronology of detrital zircon grains from the Coconino, Moenkopi, and Chinle formations in the Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona)Evaluating the reliability of U–Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) carbonate geochronology: matrix issues and a potential calcite validation reference materialLaser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U–Pb carbonate geochronology: strategies, progress, and limitations
Charles W. Magee Jr., Simon Bodorkos, Christopher J. Lewis, James L. Crowley, Corey J. Wall, and Richard M. Friedman
Geochronology, 5, 1–19,Short summary
SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe) is an instrument that for decades has used the radioactive decay of uranium into lead to measure geologic time. The accuracy and precision of this instrument has not been seriously reviewed in almost 20 years. This paper compares several dozen SHRIMP ages in our database with more accurate and precise methods to assess SHRIMP accuracy and precision. Analytical and geological complications are addressed to try to improve the method.
Romain Tartèse and Ian C. Lyon
Geochronology, 4, 683–690,Short summary
Absolute chronological constraints are crucial in Earth and planetary sciences. In recent years, U–Pb dating of carbonates has provided information on the timing of, for example, diagenesis, faulting, or hydrothermalism. These studies have targeted relatively young terrestrial carbonates up to 300 million years old. By dating 3.9 billion-year-old martian carbonates in situ using the U–Pb chronometer, we show that this system is robust in ancient samples that have had a relatively simple history.
Darwinaji Subarkah, Angus L. Nixon, Monica Jimenez, Alan S. Collins, Morgan L. Blades, Juraj Farkaš, Sarah E. Gilbert, Simon Holford, and Amber Jarrett
Geochronology, 4, 577–600,Short summary
Advancements in technology have introduced new techniques to more quickly and cheaply date rocks with little sample preparation. A unique use of this method is to date shales and constrain when these rocks were first deposited. This approach can also time when such sequences were subsequently affected by heat or fluids after they were deposited. This is useful, as the formation of precious-metal-bearing systems or petroleum source rocks is commonly associated with such processes.
Daniil V. Popov
Geochronology, 4, 399–407,Short summary
This work provides equations allowing the use of minerals with variable concentrations of parent and daughter isotopes as primary standards to correct for elemental fractionation during the analysis by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
Alexander Simpson, Stijn Glorie, Martin Hand, Carl Spandler, Sarah Gilbert, and Brad Cave
Geochronology, 4, 353–372,Short summary
The article demonstrates a new technique that can be used to determine the age of calcite crystallisation using the decay of 176Lu to 176Hf. The technique is novel because (a) Lu–Hf radiometric dating is rarely applied to calcite and (b) this is the first instance where analysis has been conducted by ablating the sample with a laser beam rather than bulk dissolution. By using laser ablation the original context of the sample is preserved.
Bar Elisha, Perach Nuriel, Andrew Kylander-Clark, and Ram Weinberger
Geochronology, 3, 337–349,Short summary
Distinguishing between different dolomitization processes is challenging yet critical for resolving some of the issues and ambiguities related to the formation of dolomitic rocks. Accurate U–Pb absolute dating of dolomite by LA-ICP-MS could contribute to a better understanding of the dolomitization process by placing syngenetic, early diagenetic, and/or epigenetic events in the proper geological context.
Louise Lenoir, Thomas Blaise, Andréa Somogyi, Benjamin Brigaud, Jocelyn Barbarand, Claire Boukari, Julius Nouet, Aurore Brézard-Oudot, and Maurice Pagel
Geochronology, 3, 199–227,Short summary
To explore the U–Pb geochronometer in fluorite, the spatial distribution of uranium and other substituted elements in natural crystals is investigated using induced fission-track and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping. LA-ICP-MS U–Pb dating on four crystals, which preserve micrometer-scale variations in U concentrations, yields identical ages within analytical uncertainty. Our results show that fluorite U–Pb geochronology has potential for dating distinct crystal growth stages.
Veronica Peverelli, Tanya Ewing, Daniela Rubatto, Martin Wille, Alfons Berger, Igor Maria Villa, Pierre Lanari, Thomas Pettke, and Marco Herwegh
Geochronology, 3, 123–147,Short summary
This work presents LA-ICP-MS U–Pb geochronology of epidote in hydrothermal veins. The challenges of epidote dating are addressed, and a protocol is proposed allowing us to obtain epidote U–Pb ages with a precision as good as 5 % in addition to the initial Pb isotopic composition of the epidote-forming fluid. Epidote demonstrates its potential to be used as a U–Pb geochronometer and as a fluid tracer, allowing us to reconstruct the timing of hydrothermal activity and the origin of the fluid(s).
E. Troy Rasbury, Theodore M. Present, Paul Northrup, Ryan V. Tappero, Antonio Lanzirotti, Jennifer M. Cole, Kathleen M. Wooton, and Kevin Hatton
Geochronology, 3, 103–122,Short summary
We characterize three natural carbonate samples with elevated uranium/lead (U/Pb) ratios to demonstrate techniques improving the understanding of U incorporation in carbonates for U/Pb dating. With the rapidly accelerating application of laser ablation analyses, there is a great need for well-characterized reference materials that can serve multiple functions. Strontium (Sr) isotope analyses and U XANES demonstrate that these samples could be used as reference materials.
Guilhem Hoareau, Fanny Claverie, Christophe Pecheyran, Christian Paroissin, Pierre-Alexandre Grignard, Geoffrey Motte, Olivier Chailan, and Jean-Pierre Girard
Geochronology, 3, 67–87,Short summary
A new methodology for the micron-scale uranium–lead dating of carbonate minerals is proposed. It is based on the extraction of ages directly from pixel images (< 1 mm2) obtained by laser ablation coupled to a mass spectrometer. The ages are calculated with a robust linear regression through the pixel values. This methodology is compared to existing approaches.
Fanis Abdullin, Luigi A. Solari, Jesús Solé, and Carlos Ortega-Obregón
Geochronology, 3, 59–65,Short summary
Unetched and etched apatite grains from five samples were dated by U–Pb method using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our experiment indicates that etching needed for apatite fission track dating has insignificant effects on obtaining accurate U–Pb ages; thus, the laser ablation-based technique may be used for apatite fission track and U–Pb double dating.
Perach Nuriel, Jörn-Frederik Wotzlaw, Maria Ovtcharova, Anton Vaks, Ciprian Stremtan, Martin Šala, Nick M. W. Roberts, and Andrew R. C. Kylander-Clark
Geochronology, 3, 35–47,Short summary
This contribution presents a new reference material, ASH-15 flowstone with an age of 2.965 ± 0.011 Ma (95 % CI), to be used for in situ U–Pb dating of carbonate material. The new age analyses include the use of the EARTHTIME isotopic tracers and a large number of sub-samples (n = 37) with small aliquots (1–7 mg) each that are more representative of laser-ablation spot analysis. The new results could improve the propagated uncertainties on the final age with a minimal value of 0.4 %.
Andrew R. C. Kylander-Clark
Geochronology, 2, 343–354,Short summary
This paper serves as a guide to those interested in dating calcite by laser ablation. Within it are theoretical and practical limits of U and Pb concentrations (and U / Pb ratios), which would allow viable extraction of ages from calcite (and other minerals with moderate U / Pb ratios), and which type of instrumentation would be appropriate for any given sample. The method described uses a new detector array, allowing for lower detection limits and thereby expanding the range of viable samples.
Hugo K. H. Olierook, Kai Rankenburg, Stanislav Ulrich, Christopher L. Kirkland, Noreen J. Evans, Stephen Brown, Brent I. A. McInnes, Alexander Prent, Jack Gillespie, Bradley McDonald, and Miles Darragh
Geochronology, 2, 283–303,Short summary
Using a relatively new dating technique, in situ Rb–Sr geochronology, we constrain the ages of two generations of mineral assemblages from the Tropicana Zone, Western Australia. The first, dated at ca. 2535 Ma, is associated with exhumation of an Archean craton margin and gold mineralization. The second, dated at ca. 1210 Ma, has not been previously documented in the Tropicana Zone. It is probably associated with Stage II of the Albany–Fraser Orogeny and additional gold mineralization.
George Gehrels, Dominique Giesler, Paul Olsen, Dennis Kent, Adam Marsh, William Parker, Cornelia Rasmussen, Roland Mundil, Randall Irmis, John Geissman, and Christopher Lepre
Geochronology, 2, 257–282,Short summary
U–Pb ages of zircon crystals are used to determine the provenance and depositional age of strata of the Triassic Chinle and Moenkopi formations and the Permian Coconino Sandstone of northern Arizona. Primary source regions include the Ouachita orogen, local Precambrian basement rocks, and Permian–Triassic magmatic arcs to the south and west. Ages from fine-grained strata provide reliable depositional ages, whereas ages from sandstones are compromised by zircon grains recycled from older strata.
Marcel Guillong, Jörn-Frederik Wotzlaw, Nathan Looser, and Oscar Laurent
Geochronology, 2, 155–167,Short summary
The dating of carbonates by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is improved by an additional, newly characterised reference material and adapted data evaluation protocols: the shape (diameter to depth) of the ablation crater has to be as similar as possible in the reference material used and the unknown samples to avoid an offset. Different carbonates have different ablation rates per laser pulse. With robust uncertainty propagation, precision can be as good as 2–3 %.
Nick M. W. Roberts, Kerstin Drost, Matthew S. A. Horstwood, Daniel J. Condon, David Chew, Henrik Drake, Antoni E. Milodowski, Noah M. McLean, Andrew J. Smye, Richard J. Walker, Richard Haslam, Keith Hodson, Jonathan Imber, Nicolas Beaudoin, and Jack K. Lee
Geochronology, 2, 33–61,Short summary
Here we review current progress in LA-ICP-MS U–Pb carbonate geochronology and present strategies for acquisition and interpretation of carbonate U–Pb dates. We cover topics from imaging techniques and U and Pb incorporation into calcite to potential limitations of the method – disequilibrium and isotope mobility. We demonstrate the incorporation of imaging and compositional data to help refine and interpret U–Pb dates. We expect this paper to become a
go-toreference paper for years to come.
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Calcite is frequently formed during alteration processes in the basaltic, uppermost layer of juvenile oceanic crust. Weathered oceanic basalts are hard to date with conventional radiometric methods. We show in a case study from the North Pamir, Central Asia, that calcite U–Pb age data, supported by geochemistry and petrological microscopy, have potential to date sufficiently old oceanic basalts, if the time span between basalt extrusion and latest calcite precipitation (~ 25 Myr) is considered.
Calcite is frequently formed during alteration processes in the basaltic, uppermost layer of...