Articles | Volume 2, issue 2
16 Dec 2020
Research article | 16 Dec 2020
Calibrating a long-term meteoric 10Be delivery rate into eroding western US glacial deposits by comparing meteoric and in situ produced 10Be depth profiles
Travis Clow et al.
No articles found.
Jamey Stutz, Andrew Mackintosh, Kevin Norton, Ross Whitmore, Carlo Baroni, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, Richard S. Jones, Greg Balco, Maria Cristina Salvatore, Stefano Casale, Jae Il Lee, Yeong Bae Seong, Robert McKay, Lauren J. Vargo, Daniel Lowry, Perry Spector, Marcus Christl, Susan Ivy Ochs, Luigia Di Nicola, Maria Iarossi, Finlay Stuart, and Tom Woodruff
The Cryosphere, 15, 5447–5471,Short summary
Understanding the long-term behaviour of ice sheets is essential to projecting future changes due to climate change. In this study, we use rocks deposited along the margin of the David Glacier, one of the largest glacier systems in the world, to reveal a rapid thinning event initiated over 7000 years ago and endured for ~ 2000 years. Using physical models, we show that subglacial topography and ocean heat are important drivers for change along this sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Gilles Brocard, Jane Kathrin Willenbring, Tristan Salles, Michael Cosca, Axel Guttiérez-Orrego, Noé Cacao Chiquín, Sergio Morán-Ical, and Christian Teyssier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 795–822,Short summary
The rise of a mountain affects the circulation of water, both in the atmosphere and over the land surface, thereby affecting the erosion of the land surface. We document how the rise of a mountain in central Guatemala has affected the erosion of an older range nearby. The new range intercepts precipitation formerly delivered to the older range. River response to the uplift of the new range has decreased incision across the older one. Both have reduced hillslope erosion over the old range.
Dominik Amschwand, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Marcel Frehner, Olivia Steinemann, Marcus Christl, and Christof Vockenhuber
The Cryosphere, 15, 2057–2081,Short summary
We reconstruct the Holocene history of the Bleis Marscha rock glacier (eastern Swiss Alps) by determining the surface residence time of boulders via their exposure to cosmic rays. We find that this stack of lobes formed in three phases over the last ~9000 years, controlled by the regional climate. This work adds to our understanding of how these permafrost landforms reacted in the past to climate oscillations and helps to put the current behavior of rock glaciers in a long-term perspective.
Lyla L. Taylor, Charles T. Driscoll, Peter M. Groffman, Greg H. Rau, Joel D. Blum, and David J. Beerling
Biogeosciences, 18, 169–188,Short summary
Enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy involving soil amendments with silicate rock dust. Over 15 years, a small silicate application led to net CDR of 8.5–11.5 t CO2/ha in an acid-rain-impacted New Hampshire forest. We accounted for the total carbon cost of treatment and compared effects with an adjacent, untreated forest. Our results suggest ERW can improve the greenhouse gas balance of similar forests in addition to mitigating acid rain effects.
Daniel A. Frick, Rainer Remus, Michael Sommer, Jürgen Augustin, Danuta Kaczorek, and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 6475–6490,Short summary
Silicon is taken up by some plants to increase structural stability and to develop stress resistance and is rejected by others. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used the stable isotopes of silicon that shift in their relative abundance depending on the biochemical transformation involved. On species with a rejective (tomato, mustard) and active (wheat) uptake mechanism, grown in hydroculture, we found that the transport of silicic acid is controlled by the precipitation of biogenic opal.
Nathan J. Lyons, Pedro Val, James S. Albert, Jane K. Willenbring, and Nicole M. Gasparini
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 893–912,Short summary
Organisms evolve in ever-changing environments under complex process interactions. We applied a new software modelling tool to assess how changes in river course impact the evolution of riverine species. Models illustrate the climatically and tectonically forced landscape changes that can drive riverine biodiversity, especially where topographic relief is low. This research demonstrates that river course changes can contribute to the high riverine biodiversity found in real-world lowland basins.
Ralf A. Oeser and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4883–4917,Short summary
We present a novel strategy to decipher the relative impact of biogenic and abiotic drivers of weathering. We parameterized the nutrient fluxes in four ecosystems along a climate and vegetation gradient situated on the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. We investigated how nutrient demand by plants drives weathering. We found that the increase in biomass nutrient demand is accommodated by faster nutrient recycling rather than an increase in the weathering–release rates.
Renee van Dongen, Dirk Scherler, Hella Wittmann, and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Earth Surf. Dynam., 7, 393–410,Short summary
The concentration of cosmogenic 10Be is typically measured in the sand fraction of river sediment to estimate catchment-average erosion rates. Using the sand fraction in catchments where the 10Be concentrations differ per grain size could potentially result in biased erosion rates. In this study we investigated the occurrence and causes of grain size-dependent 10Be concentrations and identified the types of catchments which are sensitive to biased catchment-average erosion rates.
David E. Archer and Joel D. Blum
Biogeosciences, 15, 6297–6313,Short summary
Humans have had a huge impact on the mercury cycle in the biosphere, but it is difficult to follow the mercury cycle because mercury has so many mobile forms, as gases in the atmosphere and solutes in water. Mercury isotopes constrain mercury fluxes and sources, because mercury has many stable isotopes, and different fractionation mechanisms have different fingerprints in those isotopic compositions. We present the first model of mercury isotopic composition in the ocean.
Jean L. Dixon, Friedhelm von Blanckenburg, Kurt Stüwe, and Marcus Christl
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 895–909,Short summary
We quantify the glacial legacy of Holocene erosion at the eastern edge of the European Alps and add insight to the debate on drivers of Alpine erosion. We present the first data explicitly comparing 10Be-based erosion rates in previously glaciated and non-glaciated basins (n = 26). Erosion rates vary 5-fold across the region, correlating with local topography and glacial history. Our approach and unique study site allow us to isolate the role of glacial topographic legacies from other controls.
S. Emmanuel, J. A. Schuessler, J. Vinther, A. Matthews, and F. von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 11, 5493–5502,
J. K. Willenbring, A. T. Codilean, K. L. Ferrier, B. McElroy, and J. W. Kirchner
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Related subject area
Cosmogenic nuclide datingCombined linear-regression and Monte Carlo approach to modeling exposure age depth profilesTechnical note: Evaluating a geographical information system (GIS)- based approach for determining topographic shielding factors in cosmic-ray exposure datingCosmogenic nuclide weathering biases: corrections and potential for denudation and weathering rate measurementsCosmogenic nuclide and solute flux data from central Cuban rivers emphasize the importance of both physical and chemical mass loss from tropical landscapesTechnical Note: A software framework for calculating compositionally dependent in situ 14C production rates10Be age control of glaciation in the Beartooth Mountains, USA from the latest Pleistocene through the HoloceneConstraining the aggradation mode of Pleistocene river deposits based on cosmogenic radionuclide depth profiles and numerical modellingTechnical note: Accelerator mass spectrometry of 10Be and 26Al at low nuclide concentrationsReconciling the apparent absence of a Last Glacial Maximum alpine glacial advance, Yukon Territory, Canada, through cosmogenic beryllium-10 and carbon-14 measurementsCosmogenic ages indicate no MIS 2 refugia in the Alexander Archipelago, AlaskaIn situ-produced cosmogenic krypton in zircon and its potential for Earth surface applicationsCosmogenic nuclide exposure age scatter records glacial history and processes in McMurdo Sound, AntarcticaTechnical Note: Noble gas extraction procedure and performance of the Cologne Helix MC Plus multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer for cosmogenic neon isotope analysisExposure dating of detrital magnetite using 3He enabled by microCT and calibration of the cosmogenic 3He production rate in magnetiteDelayed and rapid deglaciation of alpine valleys in the Sawatch Range, southern Rocky Mountains, USATechnical note: A prototype transparent-middle-layer data management and analysis infrastructure for cosmogenic-nuclide exposure datingIsolation of quartz for cosmogenic in situ 14C analysisChlorine-36∕beryllium-10 burial dating of alluvial fan sediments associated with the Mission Creek strand of the San Andreas Fault system, California, USA
Yiran Wang and Michael E. Oskin
Geochronology, 4, 533–549,Short summary
When first introduced together with the depth profile technique to determine the surface exposure age, the linear inversion approach has suffered with the drawbacks of not incorporating erosion and muons into calculation. In this paper, we increase the accuracy and applicability of the linear inversion approach by fully considering surface erosion, muogenic production, and radioactive decay, while maintaining its advantage of being straightforward to determine an exposure age.
Felix Martin Hofmann
Revised manuscript accepted for GChronShort summary
If topographical obstructions are present in the surroundings of sampling sites, exposure ages of rock surfaces need to be corrected. A toolbox for the ESRI ArcGIS software allows for quantifying topographic shielding with a digital elevation model, but it has only been validated with few field data. In this study, the output of the toolbox is evaluated with a more extensive dataset. If suitable elevation data is chosen, the toolbox provides a sound approach to determine topographic shielding.
Richard F. Ott, Sean F. Gallen, and Darryl E. Granger
Geochronology, 4, 455–470,Short summary
Cosmogenic nuclides are a tool to quantify denudation – the total removal of mass from near the Earth's surface. Chemical weathering can introduce biases to cosmogenic-nuclide-based denudation rates measurements. Here, we investigate the effects of weathering on cosmogenic nuclides and develop tools to correct for this influence. Our results highlight which additional measurements are required to determine accurate denudation rates in regions where weathering is not negligible.
Mae Kate Campbell, Paul R. Bierman, Amanda H. Schmidt, Rita Sibello Hernández, Alejandro García-Moya, Lee B. Corbett, Alan J. Hidy, Héctor Cartas Águila, Aniel Guillén Arruebarrena, Greg Balco, David Dethier, and Marc Caffee
Geochronology, 4, 435–453,Short summary
We used cosmogenic radionuclides in detrital river sediment to measure erosion rates of watersheds in central Cuba; erosion rates are lower than rock dissolution rates in lowland watersheds. Data from two different cosmogenic nuclides suggest that some basins may have a mixed layer deeper than is typically modeled and could have experienced significant burial after or during exposure. We conclude that significant mass loss may occur at depth through chemical weathering processes.
Alexandria J. Koester and Nathaniel A. Lifton
Revised manuscript accepted for GChronShort summary
In situ 14C’s short half-life (5.7 ky) is unique among cosmogenic nuclides, making it sensitive to complex exposure/burial histories since 25 ka. Current extraction methods focus on quartz, but the ability to extract it from other minerals would expand applications. We developed MATLAB® scripts to calculate in situ 14C production rates from a broad range of mineral compositions. Results confirm O, Si, Al, and Mg as key targets, but also find significant production from Na for the first time.
Aaron M. Barth, Elizabeth G. Ceperley, Claire Vavrus, Shaun A. Marcott, Jeremy D. Shakun, and Marc W. Caffee
Revised manuscript accepted for GChronShort summary
Deposits left behind by past glacial activity provide insight into the previous size and behavior of glaciers, and act as another line of evidence for past climate. Here we present new age control for glacial deposits in the mountains of Montana and Wyoming, United States. While some deposits indicate glacial activity within the last 2000 years, others are shown to be older than previously thought, thus redefining the extent of regional Holocene glaciation.
Nathan Vandermaelen, Koen Beerten, François Clapuyt, Marcus Christl, and Veerle Vanacker
Revised manuscript accepted for GChronShort summary
We constrained deposition phases of fluvial sediments (NE Belgium) over the last 1 Ma with analysis and modelling of rare isotopes accumulation within sediments, occuring in function of time and inverse function of depth. They allowed the determination of 3 superposed deposition phases and intercalated non-deposition periods of ~ 40 kyr each. These phases correspond to 20% of the sediment age, which highlights the importance to consider deposition phase when dating fluvial sediments.
Klaus M. Wilcken, Alexandru T. Codilean, Réka-H. Fülöp, Steven Kotevski, Anna H. Rood, Dylan H. Rood, Alexander J. Seal, and Krista Simon
Geochronology, 4, 339–352,Short summary
Cosmogenic nuclides are now widely applied in the Earth sciences; however, more recent applications often push the analytical limits of the technique. Our study presents a comprehensive method for analysis of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al samples down to isotope concentrations of a few thousand atoms per gram of sample, which opens the door to new and more varied applications of cosmogenic nuclide analysis.
Brent M. Goehring, Brian Menounos, Gerald Osborn, Adam Hawkins, and Brent Ward
Geochronology, 4, 311–322,Short summary
We explored surface exposure dating with two nuclides to date two sets of moraines from the Yukon Territory and explain the reasoning for the observed ages. Results suggest multiple processes, including preservation of nuclides from a prior exposure period, and later erosion of the moraines is required to explain the data. Our results only allow for the older moraines to date to Marine Isotope Stage 3 or 4 and the younger moraines to date to the very earliest Holocene.
Caleb K. Walcott, Jason P. Briner, James F. Baichtal, Alia J. Lesnek, and Joseph M. Licciardi
Geochronology, 4, 191–211,Short summary
We present a record of ice retreat from the northern Alexander Archipelago, Alaska. During the last ice age (~ 26 000–19 000 years ago), these islands were covered by the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. We tested whether islands were ice-free during the last ice age for human migrants moving from Asia to the Americas. We found that these islands became ice-free between ~ 15 100 years ago and ~ 16 000 years ago, and thus these islands were not suitable for human habitation during the last ice age.
Tibor János Dunai, Steven Andrew Binnie, and Axel Gerdes
Geochronology, 4, 65–85,Short summary
We develop in situ-produced terrestrial cosmogenic krypton as a new tool to date and quantify Earth surface processes, the motivation being the availability of six stable isotopes and one radioactive isotope (81Kr, half-life 229 kyr) and of an extremely weathering-resistant target mineral (zircon). We provide proof of principle that terrestrial Krit can be quantified and used to unravel Earth surface processes.
Andrew J. Christ, Paul R. Bierman, Jennifer L. Lamp, Joerg M. Schaefer, and Gisela Winckler
Geochronology, 3, 505–523,Short summary
Cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating is commonly used to constrain the timing of past glacier extents. However, Antarctic exposure age datasets are often scattered and difficult to interpret. We compile new and existing exposure ages of a glacial deposit with independently known age constraints and identify surface processes that increase or reduce the likelihood of exposure age scatter. Then we present new data for a previously unmapped and undated older deposit from the same region.
Benedikt Ritter, Andreas Vogt, and Tibor J. Dunai
Geochronology, 3, 421–431,Short summary
We describe the design and performance of a new noble gas mass laboratory dedicated to the development of and application to cosmogenic nuclides at the University of Cologne (Germany). At the core of the laboratory are a state-of-the-art high-mass-resolution multicollector Helix MCPlus (Thermo-Fisher) noble gas mass spectrometer and a novel custom-designed automated extraction line, including a laser-powered extraction furnace. Performance was tested with intercomparison (CREU-1) material.
Florian Hofmann, Emily H. G. Cooperdock, A. Joshua West, Dominic Hildebrandt, Kathrin Strößner, and Kenneth A. Farley
Geochronology, 3, 395–414,Short summary
We use microCT scanning to improve the quality of 3He exposure ages measured in detrital magnetite. We show that the presence of inclusions can significantly increase the measured amount of 3He and thereby the exposure age. By prescreening magnetite with microCT and analyzing only inclusion-free grains, this problem can be avoided. We also calibrate the cosmogenic 3He production rate in magnetite relative to 10Be in quartz, which can be used for similar studies in the future.
Joseph P. Tulenko, William Caffee, Avriel D. Schweinsberg, Jason P. Briner, and Eric M. Leonard
Geochronology, 2, 245–255,Short summary
We investigate the timing and rate of retreat for three alpine glaciers in the southern Rocky Mountains to test whether they followed the pattern of global climate change or were majorly influenced by regional forcing mechanisms. We find that the latter is most likely for these glaciers. Our conclusions are based on a new 10Be chronology of alpine glacier retreat. We quantify retreat rates for each valley using the BACON program in R, which may be of interest for the audience of Geochronology.
Geochronology, 2, 169–175,Short summary
Geologic dating methods generally do not directly measure ages. Instead, interpreting a geochemical measurement as an age requires a middle layer of calculations and supporting data, and the fact that this layer continually improves is an obstacle to synoptic analysis of geochronological data. This paper describes a prototype data management and analysis system that addresses this obstacle by making the middle-layer calculations transparent and dynamic to the user.
Keir A. Nichols and Brent M. Goehring
Geochronology, 1, 43–52,Short summary
We describe observations of anomalously high measurements of C-14 made from geologic material. We undertake a systematic investigation to identify the source of contamination, which we hypothesise is sourced from a commonly used method that is used prior to sample analysis. We find that the method does introduce modern carbon to samples and elevates C-14 measurements. We describe a standard procedure that effectively removes contamination from the aforementioned method.
Greg Balco, Kimberly Blisniuk, and Alan Hidy
Geochronology, 1, 1–16,Short summary
This article applies a new geochemical dating method to determine the age of sedimentary deposits useful in reconstructing slip rates on a major fault system.
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Meteoric beryllium-10 concentrations in soil profiles have great capacity to quantify Earth surface processes, such as erosion rates and landform ages. However, determining these requires an accurate estimate of the delivery rate of this isotope to local sites. Here, we present a new method to constrain the long-term delivery rate to an eroding western US site, compare it against existing delivery rate estimates (revealing considerable disagreement between methods), and suggest best practices.
Meteoric beryllium-10 concentrations in soil profiles have great capacity to quantify Earth...