Articles | Volume 5, issue 1
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Bayesian age–depth modelling applied to varve and radiometric dating to optimize the transfer of an existing high-resolution chronology to a new composite sediment profile from Holzmaar (West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany)
Institute of Geography, GEOPOLAR, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland
Institute of Geography, GEOPOLAR, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
No articles found.
Lilian Reiss, Christian Stüwe, Thomas Einwögerer, Marc Händel, Andreas Maier, Stefan Meng, Kerstin Pasda, Ulrich Simon, Bernd Zolitschka, and Christoph Mayr
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 71, 23–43,Short summary
We aim at testing and evaluating geochemical proxies and material for radiocarbon dating for their reliability and consistency at the Palaeolithic site Kammern-Grubgraben (Lower Austria). While carbonate and organic carbon contents are interpreted in terms of palaeoclimate variability, pedogenic carbonates turned out to be of Holocene age. As a consequence, the proxy data assessed here are differentially suitable for environmental reconstructions.
Paul D. Zander, Maurycy Żarczyński, Wojciech Tylmann, Shauna-kay Rainford, and Martin Grosjean
Clim. Past, 17, 2055–2071,Short summary
High-resolution geochemical imaging techniques provide new opportunities to investigate the biogeochemical composition of sediments at micrometer scale. Here, we compare biogeochemical data from biochemical varves with meteorological data to understand how seasonal meteorological variations are recorded in varve composition. We find that these scanning techniques help to clarify climate–proxy relationships in biochemical varves and show great potential for high-resolution climate reconstruction.
Stamatina Makri, Andrea Lami, Luyao Tu, Wojciech Tylmann, Hendrik Vogel, and Martin Grosjean
Biogeosciences, 18, 1839–1856,Short summary
Anoxia in lakes is a major growing concern. In this study we applied a multiproxy approach combining high-resolution hyperspectral imaging (HSI) pigment data with specific HPLC data to examine the Holocene evolution and main drivers of lake anoxia and trophic state changes. We find that when human impact was low, these changes were driven by climate and natural lake-catchment evolution. In the last 500 years, increasing human impact has promoted lake eutrophication and permanent anoxia.
Christoph Mayr, Renate Matzke-Karasz, Philipp Stojakowits, Sally E. Lowick, Bernd Zolitschka, Tanja Heigl, Richard Mollath, Marian Theuerkauf, Marc-Oliver Weckend, Rupert Bäumler, and Hans-Joachim Gregor
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 66, 73–89,
Valerie Menke, Werner Ehrmann, Yvonne Milker, Swaantje Brzelinski, Jürgen Möbius, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Bernd Zolitschka, Karin Zonneveld, Kay Christian Emeis, and Gerhard Schmiedl
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study examines changes in the marine ecosystem during the past 1300 years in the Gulf of Taranto (Italy) to unravel natural and anthropogenic forcing. Our data suggest, that processes at the sea floor are linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. During the past 200 years, the effects of rising northern hemisphere temperature and increasing anthropogenic activity enhanced nutrient and organic matter fluxes leading to more eutrophic conditions.
Aurèle Vuillemin, Daniel Ariztegui, Peter R. Leavitt, Lynda Bunting, and the PASADO Science Team
Biogeosciences, 13, 2475–2492,Short summary
Aquatic sediments record climatic conditions while providing ecological niches for microorganisms. In lacustrine settings, the relationship between environmental features and sedimentary DNA remains largely unknown. Comparison of microbial assemblages with fossil pigments show that the subsurface biosphere is specific to climatic intervals and that post-depositional processes result in a rapid overprint of phototrophic communities by heterotrophic assemblages with preserved pigment compositions.
J. Zhu, A. Lücke, H. Wissel, C. Mayr, D. Enters, K. Ja Kim, C. Ohlendorf, F. Schäbitz, and B. Zolitschka
Clim. Past, 10, 2153–2169,
Related subject area
Geochronological data analysis/statistics/modellingTechnical note: colab_zirc_dims: a Google Colab-compatible toolset for automated and semi-automated measurement of mineral grains in laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry images using deep learning modelsCalculation of uncertainty in the (U–Th) ∕ He systemShort communication: age2exhume – a MATLAB/Python script to calculate steady-state vertical exhumation rates from thermochronometric ages and application to the HimalayaU and Th content in magnetite and Al spinel obtained by wet chemistry and laser ablation methods: implication for (U–Th) ∕ He thermochronometerIn situ LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of sulfates: applicability of carbonate reference materials as matrix-matched standardsAn algorithm for U–Pb geochronology by secondary ion mass spectrometryTechnical note: Rapid phase identification of apatite and zircon grains for geochronology using X-ray micro-computed tomographySimulating sedimentary burial cycles – Part 2: Elemental-based multikinetic apatite fission-track interpretation and modelling techniques illustrated using examples from northern Yukonsandbox – creating and analysing synthetic sediment sections with RImproving age–depth relationships by using the LANDO (“Linked age and depth modeling”) model ensembleHow many grains are needed for quantifying catchment erosion from tracer thermochronology?Short communication: Inverse isochron regression for Re–Os, K–Ca and other chronometersTechnical note: Analytical protocols and performance for apatite and zircon (U–Th) ∕ He analysis on quadrupole and magnetic sector mass spectrometer systems between 2007 and 2020Simulating sedimentary burial cycles – Part 1: Investigating the role of apatite fission track annealing kinetics using synthetic dataThe closure temperature(s) of zircon Raman datingOn the treatment of discordant detrital zircon U–Pb dataAn evaluation of Deccan Traps eruption rates using geochronologic datageoChronR – an R package to model, analyze, and visualize age-uncertain dataDevelopment of a multi-method chronology spanning the Last Glacial Interval from Orakei maar lake, Auckland, New ZealandRobust isochron calculationResolving the timescales of magmatic and hydrothermal processes associated with porphyry deposit formation using zircon U–Pb petrochronologySeasonal deposition processes and chronology of a varved Holocene lake sediment record from Chatyr Kol lake (Kyrgyz Republic)Unifying the U–Pb and Th–Pb methods: joint isochron regression and common Pb correctionExploring the advantages and limitations of in situ U–Pb carbonate geochronology using speleothems
Michael C. Sitar and Ryan J. Leary
Geochronology, 5, 109–126,Short summary
We developed code to automatically and semi-automatically measure dimensions of detrital mineral grains in reflected-light images saved at laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry facilities that use Chromium targeting software. Our code uses trained deep learning models to segment grain images with greater accuracy than is achievable using other segmentation techniques. We implement our code in Jupyter notebooks which can also be run online via Google Colab.
Peter E. Martin, James R. Metcalf, and Rebecca M. Flowers
Geochronology, 5, 91–107,Short summary
There is currently no standardized method of performing uncertainty propagation in the (U–Th) / He system, causing data interpretation difficulties. We present two methods of uncertainty propagation and describe free, open-source software (HeCalc) to apply them. Compilation of real data using only analytical uncertainty as well as 2 % and 5 % uncertainties in FT yields respective median relative date uncertainties of 2.9 %, 3.3 %, and 5.0 % for apatites and 1.7 %, 3.3 %, and 5.0 % for zircons.
Peter van der Beek and Taylor F. Schildgen
Geochronology, 5, 35–49,Short summary
Thermochronometric data can provide unique insights into the patterns of rock exhumation and the driving mechanisms of landscape evolution. Several well-established thermal models allow for a detailed exploration of how cooling rates evolved in a limited area or along a transect, but more regional analyses have been challenging. We present age2exhume, a thermal model that can be used to rapidly provide a synoptic overview of exhumation rates from large regional thermochronologic datasets.
Marianna Corre, Arnaud Agranier, Martine Lanson, Cécile Gautheron, Fabrice Brunet, and Stéphane Schwartz
Geochronology, 4, 665–681,Short summary
This study is focused on the accurate measurement of U and Th by wet chemistry and laser ablation methods to improve (U–Th)/He dating of magnetite and spinel. The low U–Th content and the lack of specific U–Th standards significantly limit the accuracy of (U–Th)/He dating. Obtained U–Th results on natural and synthetic magnetite and aluminous spinel samples analyzed by wet chemistry methods and LA-ICP-MS sampling have important implications for the (U–Th)/He method and dates interpretation.
Aratz Beranoaguirre, Iuliana Vasiliev, and Axel Gerdes
Geochronology, 4, 601–616,Short summary
U–Pb dating by the in situ laser ablation mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) technique requires reference materials of the same nature as the samples to be analysed. Here, we have explored the suitability of using carbonate materials as a reference for sulfates, since there is no sulfate reference material. The results we obtained are satisfactory, and thus, from now on, the sulfates can also be analysed.
Geochronology, 4, 561–576,Short summary
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is the oldest and most sensitive analytical technique for in situ U–Pb geochronology. This paper introduces a new algorithm for SIMS data reduction that treats data as
compositional data, which means that the relative abundances of 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 238Pb are processed within a tetrahedral data space or
simplex. The new method is implemented in an eponymous computer programme that is compatible with the two dominant types of SIMS instruments.
Emily H. G. Cooperdock, Florian Hofmann, Ryley M. C. Tibbetts, Anahi Carrera, Aya Takase, and Aaron J. Celestian
Geochronology, 4, 501–515,Short summary
Apatite and zircon are the most widely used minerals for dating rocks, but they can be difficult to identify in some crushed rock samples. Incorrect mineral identification results in wasted analytical resources and inaccurate data. We show how X-ray computed tomography can be used to efficiently and accurately distinguish apatite from zircon based on density variations, and provide non-destructive 3D grain-specific size, shape, and inclusion information for improved data quality.
Dale R. Issler, Kalin T. McDannell, Paul B. O'Sullivan, and Larry S. Lane
Geochronology, 4, 373–397,Short summary
Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks of northern Canada have compositionally heterogeneous detrital apatite with high age dispersion caused by differential thermal annealing. Discrete apatite fission track kinetic populations with variable annealing temperatures are defined using elemental data but are poorly resolved using conventional parameters. Inverse thermal modelling of samples from northern Yukon reveals a record of multiple heating–cooling cycles consistent with geological constraints.
Michael Dietze, Sebastian Kreutzer, Margret C. Fuchs, and Sascha Meszner
Geochronology, 4, 323–338,Short summary
The R package sandbox is a collection of functions that allow the creation, sampling and analysis of fully virtual sediment sections, like having a virtual twin of real-world deposits. This article introduces the concept, features, and workflows required to use sandbox. It shows how a real-world sediment section can be mapped into the model and subsequently addresses a series of theoretical and practical questions, exploiting the flexibility of the model framework.
Gregor Pfalz, Bernhard Diekmann, Johann-Christoph Freytag, Liudmila Syrykh, Dmitry A. Subetto, and Boris K. Biskaborn
Geochronology, 4, 269–295,Short summary
We use age–depth modeling systems to understand the relationship between age and depth in lake sediment cores. However, depending on which modeling system we use, the model results may vary. We provide a tool to link different modeling systems in an interactive computational environment and make their results comparable. We demonstrate the power of our tool by highlighting three case studies in which we test our application for single-sediment cores and a collection of multiple sediment cores.
Andrea Madella, Christoph Glotzbach, and Todd A. Ehlers
Geochronology, 4, 177–190,Short summary
Cooling ages date the time at which minerals cross a certain isotherm on the way up to Earth's surface. Such ages can be measured from bedrock material and river sand. If spatial variations in bedrock ages are known in a river catchment, the spatial distribution of erosion can be inferred from the distribution of the ages measured from the river sand grains. Here we develop a new tool to help such analyses, with particular emphasis on quantifying uncertainties due to sample size.
Yang Li and Pieter Vermeesch
Geochronology, 3, 415–420,Short summary
A conventional isochron is a straight-line fit to two sets of isotopic ratios, D/d and P/d, where P is the radioactive parent, D is the radiogenic daughter, and d is a second isotope of the daughter element. The slope of this line is proportional to the age of the system. An inverse isochron is a linear fit through d/D and P/D. The horizontal intercept of this line is inversely proportional to the age. The latter approach is preferred when d<D, which is the case in Re–Os and K–Ca geochronology.
Cécile Gautheron, Rosella Pinna-Jamme, Alexis Derycke, Floriane Ahadi, Caroline Sanchez, Frédéric Haurine, Gael Monvoisin, Damien Barbosa, Guillaume Delpech, Joseph Maltese, Philippe Sarda, and Laurent Tassan-Got
Geochronology, 3, 351–370,Short summary
Apatite and zircon (U–Th) / He thermochronology is now a mainstream tool to reconstruct Earth's evolution through the history of cooling and exhumation over the first dozen kilometers. The geological implications of these data rely on the precision of measurements of He, U, Th, and Sm contents in crystals. This technical note documents the methods for He thermochronology developed at the GEOPS laboratory, Paris-Saclay University, that allow (U–Th) / He data to be obtained with precision.
Kalin T. McDannell and Dale R. Issler
Geochronology, 3, 321–335,Short summary
We generated a synthetic dataset applying published kinetic models and distinct annealing kinetics for the apatite fission track and (U–Th)/He methods using a predetermined thermal history. We then tested how well the true thermal history could be recovered under different data interpretation schemes and geologic constraint assumptions using the Bayesian QTQt software. Our results demonstrate that multikinetic data increase time–temperature resolution and can constrain complex thermal histories.
Birk Härtel, Raymond Jonckheere, Bastian Wauschkuhn, and Lothar Ratschbacher
Geochronology, 3, 259–272,Short summary
We carried out thermal annealing experiments between 500 and 1000 °C to determine the closure temperature of radiation-damage annealing in zircon (ZrSiO4). Our results show that the different Raman bands of zircon respond differently to annealing. The repair is highest for the external rotation Raman band near 356.6 cm−1. The closure temperature estimates range from 250 to 370 °C for different bands. The differences in closure temperatures offer the prospect of multi-T zircon Raman dating.
Geochronology, 3, 247–257,Short summary
This paper shows that the current practice of filtering discordant U–Pb data based on the relative difference between the 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/206Pb ages is just one of several possible approaches to the problem and demonstrably not the best one. An alternative approach is to define discordance in terms of isotopic composition, as a log ratio distance between the measurement and the concordia line. Application to real data indicates that this reduces the positive bias of filtered age spectra.
Blair Schoene, Michael P. Eddy, C. Brenhin Keller, and Kyle M. Samperton
Geochronology, 3, 181–198,Short summary
We compare two published U–Pb and 40Ar / 39Ar geochronologic datasets to produce eruption rate models for the Deccan Traps large igneous province. Applying the same approach to each dataset, the resulting models agree well, but the higher-precision U–Pb dataset results in a more detailed eruption model than the lower-precision 40Ar / 39Ar data. We explore sources of geologic uncertainty and reiterate the importance of systematic uncertainties in comparing U–Pb and 40Ar / 39Ar datasets.
Nicholas P. McKay, Julien Emile-Geay, and Deborah Khider
Geochronology, 3, 149–169,Short summary
This paper describes geoChronR, an R package that streamlines the process of quantifying age uncertainties, propagating uncertainties through several common analyses, and visualizing the results. In addition to describing the structure and underlying theory of the package, we present five real-world use cases that illustrate common workflows in geoChronR. geoChronR is built on the Linked PaleoData framework, is open and extensible, and we welcome feedback and contributions from the community.
Leonie Peti, Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons, Jenni L. Hopkins, Andreas Nilsson, Toshiyuki Fujioka, David Fink, Charles Mifsud, Marcus Christl, Raimund Muscheler, and Paul C. Augustinus
Geochronology, 2, 367–410,Short summary
Orakei Basin – a former maar lake in Auckland, New Zealand – provides an outstanding sediment record over the last ca. 130 000 years, but an age model is required to allow the reconstruction of climate change and volcanic eruptions contained in the sequence. To construct a relationship between depth in the sediment core and age of deposition, we combined tephrochronology, radiocarbon dating, luminescence dating, and the relative intensity of the paleomagnetic field in a Bayesian age–depth model.
Roger Powell, Eleanor C. R. Green, Estephany Marillo Sialer, and Jon Woodhead
Geochronology, 2, 325–342,Short summary
The standard approach to isochron calculation assumes that the distribution of uncertainties on the data arising from isotopic analysis is strictly Gaussian. This excludes datasets that have more scatter, even though many appear to have age significance. Our new approach requires only that the central part of the uncertainty distribution of the data defines a "spine" in the trend of the data. A robust statistics approach is used to locate the spine, and an implementation in Python is given.
Simon J. E. Large, Jörn-Frederik Wotzlaw, Marcel Guillong, Albrecht von Quadt, and Christoph A. Heinrich
Geochronology, 2, 209–230,Short summary
The integration of zircon geochemistry and U–Pb geochronology (petrochronology) allows us to improve our understanding of magmatic processes. Here we could reconstruct the ~300 kyr evolution of the magma reservoir that sourced the magmas, fluids and metals to form the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu–Au deposit. The application of in situ LA-ICP-MS and high-precision CA–ID–TIMS geochronology to the same zircons further allowed an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the different techniques.
Julia Kalanke, Jens Mingram, Stefan Lauterbach, Ryskul Usubaliev, Rik Tjallingii, and Achim Brauer
Geochronology, 2, 133–154,Short summary
Our study presents the first seasonally laminated (varved) sediment record covering almost the entire Holocene in high mountainous arid Central Asia. The established floating varve chronology is confirmed by two terrestrial radiocarbon dates, whereby aquatic radiocarbon dates reveal decreasing reservoir ages up core. Changes in seasonal deposition characteristics are attributed to changes in runoff and precipitation and/or to evaporative summer conditions.
Geochronology, 2, 119–131,Short summary
The U–Pb method is one of the most powerful and versatile methods in the geochronological toolbox. With two isotopes of uranium decaying to two different isotopes of lead, the U–Pb method offers an internal quality control that is absent from most other geochronological techniques. U-bearing minerals often contain significant amounts of Th, which decays to a third Pb isotope. This paper presents an algorithm to jointly process all three chronometers at once.
Jon Woodhead and Joseph Petrus
Geochronology, 1, 69–84,Short summary
Recently developed methods for in situ U–Pb age determination in carbonates have found widespread application, but the benefits and limitations of the method over bulk analysis approaches have yet to be fully explored. Here we use speleothems – cave carbonates such as stalagmites and flowstones – to investigate the utility of these in situ dating methodologies for challenging matrices with low U and Pb contents and predominantly late Cenozoic ages.
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Sediment cores from the volcanic lake Holzmaar provide a very precise chronology based on tree-ring-like annual laminations or varves. We statistically combine this varve chronology with radiometric dating and tested three different methods to upgrade the age–depth model. However, only one of the three methods tested improved the dating accuracy considerably. With this work, an overview of different age integration methods is discussed and made available for increased future demands.
Sediment cores from the volcanic lake Holzmaar provide a very precise chronology based on...